By R. Hamid. Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
Certain diseases of the adrenal cortex that involve steroid hormone biosynthesis can significantly increase or decrease the Dehydroepiandrosterone amount of hormones produced extra super viagra 200 mg with visa. Lesser a given time because those cells produce and secrete these amounts of other androgens are also produced order 200 mg extra super viagra. In the human male, however, androgens pro- a healthy adult under resting (unstimulated) conditions. Be- duced by the testes and adrenal cortex contribute to the cause the molecular weights of these substances do not vary male sex hormones circulating in the blood. Adrenal an- greatly, comparing the amounts secreted indicates the rel- drogens normally have little physiological effect other than ative number of molecules of each hormone produced a role in development before the start of puberty in both daily. This is because the male sex hormone activ- corticosterone during an average day, and corticosterone ity of the adrenal androgens is weak. Exceptions occur in has only one fifth of the glucocorticoid activity of cortisol individuals who produce inappropriately large amounts of (Table 34. Cortisol is considered the physiologically im- certain adrenal androgens as a result of diseases affecting portant glucocorticoid in humans. Compared with the glu- the pathways of steroid biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex. Because of similarities in their structures, the glucocorti- Adrenal Steroid Hormones Are Synthesized coids and aldosterone have overlapping actions. For exam- From Cholesterol Cholesterol is the starting material for the synthesis of steroid hormones. A cholesterol molecule consists of four The Average Daily Production of Hor- interconnected rings of carbon atoms and a side chain of TABLE 34. In all, there are 27 carbon atoms in cholesterol, numbered as Hormone Amount Produced (mg/day) shown in the figure. The cho- 610 PART IX ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY 21 22 24 26 20 23 25 Blood 18 Apoprotein 12 17 LDL 11 27 19 16 Coated pit Plasma membrane 13 1 9 C D 2 15 14 10 8 A B Endocytosis 3 5 7 4 6 OH Cholesterol ester OH CEH Fatty acid cholesterol Steroids ACAT CEH Cholesterol ester HMG CoA reductase O Acetate Lipid HO droplet O Adrenal cortical cell FIGURE 34. Most choles- terol comes from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the blood, which bind to receptors in the plasma membrane and are The formation of pregnenolone from cho- taken up by endocytosis. The hydrogen atoms on the car- acyltransferase; HMG, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl.
Atrophic endometrium Cervical Cervicitis carcinoma Problems Involving the Uterus Cervical polyp Abnormal menstruations are among the most common disorders of the female reproductive system cheap 200 mg extra super viagra with mastercard. Abnormal menstruations Atrophic vaginitis may be directly related to problems of the reproductive organs Vaginal carcinoma and pituitary gland or associated with emotional and psycholog- ical stress purchase extra super viagra 200 mg visa. Amenorrhea (a-men'o˘-re-a˘) is the absence of menstruation and may be categorized as normal, primary, or secondary. Normal amenorrhea follows menopause, occurs during pregnancy, and in some women may occur during lactation. Primary amenorrhea is Vulval carcinoma the failure to have menstruated by the age when menstruation normally begins. Primary amenorrhea is generally accompanied by lack of development of the secondary sex characteristics. En- docrine disorders may cause primary amenorrhea and abnormal development of the ovaries or uterus. Various endocrine disturbances and psychological factors may cause secondary amenorrhea. It is not uncommon, for example, for young women who are in the process of mak- Uterine neoplasms are an extremely common problem of ing major changes or adjustments in their lives to miss men- the female reproductive tract. Secondary amenorrhea is also frequent in smooth muscle tumors (leiomyomas), and most of them are be- women athletes during periods of intense training. Any of these conditions may provoke irregular menstrua- centage of body fat may be a contributing factor. Sickness, fa- tions and may cause infertility if the neoplasms are massive.