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Stereoscopic vision gives us depth perception generic compazine 5 mg free shipping, or a three-dimensional image order compazine 5 mg on line. Body Organization and © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Organization, and the Anatomical Nomenclature Companies, 2001 Human Organism 28 Unit 2 Terminology, Organization, and the Human Organism We also differ from other animals in the number and The human body contains many distinct kinds of cells, arrangement of our vertebrae (vertebral formula), the kinds and each specialized to perform specific functions. Examples of spe- number of our teeth (tooth formula), the degree of development cialized cells are bone cells, muscle cells, fat cells, blood cells, of our facial muscles, and the structural organization of various liver cells, and nerve cells. The human characteristics just described account for the splendor of our cultural achievements. As bipedal animals, we have our hands free to grasp and manipulate objects with our op- Tissue Level posable thumbs. We can store information in our highly developed brain, make use of it at a later time, and even share our learning Tissues are layers or groups of similar cells that perform a com- through oral or written communication. The entire body is composed of only four princi- pal kinds of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous Knowledge Check tissue. An example of a tissue is the muscle within the heart, whose function it is to pump the blood through the body. Why are humans considered members outer layer of skin (epidermis) is a tissue because it is composed of the phylum Chordata? Organ Level An organ is an aggregate of two or more tissue types that per- BODY ORGANIZATION forms a specific function. Examples of organs are the Structural and functional levels of organization characterize the heart, spleen, pancreas, ovary, skin, and even any of the bones human body, and each of its parts contributes to the total organism. Each organ usually has one or more primary tis- Objective 4 Identify the components of a cell, tissue, organ, sues and several secondary tissues. In the stomach, for example, and system, and explain how these structures relate to one the inside epithelial lining is considered the primary tissue be- another in constituting an organism. Secondary tissues of the stomach are the con- Objective 5 Describe the general function of each system. Cellular Level The cell is the basic structural and functional component of System Level life. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of 60 to The systems of the body constitute the next level of structural 100 trillion cells.
Nutrient molecules and waste products like- wise pass between maternal and fetal blood 5 mg compazine with mastercard. In this procedure buy generic compazine 5 mg on line, amniotic fluid containing suspended cells is withdrawn for examination. It utilizes about netic diseases can be detected prenatally by this means. In fact, the rate of protein synthesis is actually higher in the placenta than it is in the fetal liver. The verting biologically active molecules (such as hormones and villous chorion becomes highly vascularized with embryonic drugs) into less active, more water-soluble forms. In this way, po- blood vessels, and as the embryonic heart begins to function, em- tentially dangerous molecules in the maternal blood are often bryonic blood is pumped in close proximity to the uterine wall. Chorionic villus biopsy is a technique used to detect genetic Some substances ingested by a pregnant woman are able to disorders much earlier than amniocentesis permits. In chori- pass through the placenta readily, to the detriment of the fetus. Ex- chorion, and a sample of chorionic villus is obtained by suction or cessive nicotine will stunt the growth of the fetus; heroin can lead to cutting. Genetic tests can be performed directly on the villus sample, fetal drug addiction; and certain antidepressants can cause respira- because this sample contains much larger numbers of fetal cells tory problems. Chorionic villus biopsy can pro- Although the placenta is an effective barrier against diseases vide genetic information at 10 to 12 weeks’ gestation. During parturition, small amounts of fetal blood may pass across the placenta to the mother. If the fetus is Placenta Rh positive and the mother Rh negative, the antigens of the fetal red blood cells elicit an antibody response in the mother.
Liver Stomach Gallbladder Large intestine Small intestine (b) (b) Lumen of small intestine Nucleus Creek Basement (a) membrane Goblet cell Cilia (c) FIGURE 4 compazine 5mg online. Histology © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy proven 5mg compazine, Sixth Edition of the Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 4 Histology 83 Body of uterus Uterine tube Uterine cavity Paras (b) Ovary Lumen of uterine tube Cilia (a) Vagina Cell membrane Nucleus Basement membrane (c) FIGURE 4. Specialized unicellular glands called goblet cells are scattered The tissue appears to be stratified because the nuclei of the cells through this tissue at most locations. Numerous goblet cells and a cili- bricative and protective mucus along the free surfaces of the ated exposed surface are characteristic of this epithelium. Simple columnar epithelium is found lining the inside walls found lining the inside walls of the trachea and the bronchial of the stomach and intestine. In the digestive system, it forms a tubes; hence, it is frequently called respiratory epithelium. Its func- highly absorptive surface and also secretes certain digestive tion is to remove foreign dust and bacteria entrapped in mucus chemicals. Within the stomach, simple columnar epithelium has from the lower respiratory system. Coughing and sneezing, or simply “clearing the throat,” are protective reflex mechanisms for clearing the respiratory pas- Simple Ciliated Columnar Epithelium sages of obstruction or of inhaled particles that have been trapped in the mucus along the ciliated lining. The material that is coughed up Simple ciliated columnar epithelium is characterized by the pres- consists of the mucus-entrapped particles. Cilia produce wavelike movements that transport materials through tubes or passage- Stratified Epithelia ways. This type of epithelium occurs in the female uterine tubes Stratified epithelia have two or more layers of cells.