By R. Iomar. College of Mount Saint Vincent.

Physiological experiments demon- strated that stimulation of the somatosensory cortex can induce long-term potentia- tion (LTP) in the motor cortex order eulexin 250 mg visa. CHRONIC LIMB DEAFFERENTATION In humans order 250 mg eulexin visa, limb amputation, a form of chronic deafferentation, leads to extensive cortical reorganization within the somatosensory10,32,37,68,72,75,141 and the motor corti- ces. The thalamus acts as a relay station for peripheral somatosensory input into the cortex. Thalamo-cortical connections are shown in grey (tactile thalamo-cortical inputs in light grey, deep thalamo-cortical inputs in dark grey). However, we now know that intracortical inhibition in the motor cortex contralateral to an amputated limb is decreased relative to healthy subjects17 favoring the view that reduction in GABA- ergic inhibition might be an operating mechanism. One of the behavioral consequences of amputations is phantom limb pain, a condition characterized by the presence of painful perceptions referring to the miss- ing limb. Phantom limb pain is associated with profound changes in the cortical,36,37 as well as the subcortical organization. Here, low thoracic spinal cord lesions leading to paraplegia result in interruption of sensory input originating in the lower extremities. First, corticomotor excitability targeting muscles immediately proximal to the deafferented level (in this case abdominal muscles immediately above the lesion © 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group. These findings suggest (a) that interruption of sensory input from one body part results in increases in cortical excitability in representations nearby the deafferented one, and (b) that despite long-term deaffer- entation, the primary sensorimotor cortex maintains at least a memory trace of the deafferented limb. Effects on Contralateral Cortical Function Deafferentation leads to rapid changes in the CNS. For example, rapid reorganiza- tional changes may be caused by unmasking of previously existing GABAergic connections. One approach to obtain information about mechanisms operating in this form of plasticity is to evaluate patients serially after an amputation. INB represents a strategy to induce acute reversible limb deaf- ferentation in healthy subjects.

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It is clear from Wickramasinghe (2003) that the subjective dimension of KM is recognized eulexin 250 mg sale, but the IS approach tends to diminish the barriers to appreciating KM and its implementation discount 250 mg eulexin with visa. What is the objective nature of knowledge referred to here, and how does it differ from subjective knowledge? Unsurprisingly, by exploring a number of case studies Wickramasinghe (2003) found that knowledge based systems did not support the subjective aspect of knowledge, and by not doing so, their function is reduced to that of an explicated organizational memory. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. If organizational learning is viewed this way then it is both tacit/ informal and explicit/ formal. This type of learning is non-directive since its purpose is not to transmit information through a trainer. All human learning requires the ability to name, classify, construct and communicate cognitive imagery conveying both spatial and temporal charac- teristics (Bateson, 1979). Mental maps can be considered as tacit, in the head methods, for making sense of and for performing tasks. Such methods are acquired by individuals either through contextually-tied trial-and-error techniques, or through imaginative thinking that is essentially abstract and not tied to an immediate context. By contrast, it is possible to argue that organizations create mental maps through methods that formally articulate rules and procedures to guide the activities of their members. Learning in organizations can be said to require the development of both systems and processes in order that changes in the external (and internal) environments filter through to attitudes, procedures and practices in a way that facilitates constant review of operating norms at a variety of levels throughout the organization. Since the concept of learning also relates directly to the acquisition of knowledge, it entails a fundamental link to quality. Having discussed some notions of information, quality and the learning organization in terms of knowledge and knowledge management, we are now in a position to consider some knowledge conceptualizations that are appropriate to both individual and organi- zations dimensions of healthcare.

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Illustrations created by: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Argosy buy cheap eulexin 250 mg, West Newton generic 250 mg eulexin visa, Massachusetts The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders / Stacey L. Readers product to be comprehensive, but not necessarily defini- should be aware that the universe of medical knowledge is tive. It is intended to supplement, not replace, consultation constantly growing and changing, and that differences of with a physician or other health care practitioner. They are also Gale Group has made substantial efforts to provide infor- advised to seek professional diagnosis and treatment for mation that is accurate, comprehensive, and up-to-date, any medical condition, and to discuss information the Gale Group makes no representations or warranties of obtained from this book with their health care provider. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS vii INTRODUCTION The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders is a made up of seven medical and genetic experts, evaluated unique and invaluable source for information regarding the topics and made suggestions for inclusion. This collec- selection of topics to include was made by the advisory tion of nearly 400 entries provides in-depth coverage of board in conjunction with Gale Group editors. In addition, several non-disorder entries have ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS been included to facilitate understanding of common genetic concepts and practices such as Chromosomes, The essays were compiled by experienced medical Genetic counseling, and Genetic testing. The advisors reviewed This encyclopedia avoids medical jargon and uses the completed essays to insure they are appropriate, up- language that laypersons can understand, while still pro- to-date, and medically accurate. The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders fills a gap between HOW TO USE THIS BOOK basic consumer health resources, such as single-volume The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders has family medical guides, and highly technical professional been designed with ready reference in mind. Additional terms • Signs and symptoms may be found in the glossary at the back of volume 2. The • Resources appendix contains an extensive list of organizations arranged in alphabetical order. INCLUSION CRITERIA A preliminary list of diseases and disorders was GRAPHICS compiled from a wide variety of sources, including pro- fessional medical guides and textbooks, as well as con- The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders con- sumer guides and encyclopedias. The advisory board, tains over 200 full color illustrations, including photos GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS ix and pedigree charts.

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