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The ortho- paedist should play a role in explaining to the parents that therapy is not indicated if that is his opinion cheap 150mg roxithromycin with visa, but he can also explain his role in ordering school therapy when he believes more therapy is required but the school 170 Cerebral Palsy Management disagrees generic 150 mg roxithromycin with visa. The parents’ usual response to the physician is, “You wrote the prescription, so the school has to do what you said. In general, a child with this level of motor function probably has more long-term side effects from therapy than benefits, especially if the therapy interferes with any academic classroom work. In this situation, the parents need to be educated and the school decision needs to be reinforced with the parents. The opposite example occurs with a middle school child with severe quadriplegia, who has made no motor gains over several years, and the school IEP plans to maintain motor function with classroom activities pro- vided by a teacher and a schoolroom teacher’s aide. The educator believes that the focus of the this child’s educational goals should be teaching him to use augmentative communication. These are difficult subjective decisions and the orthopaedist may find himself siding with the parents; however, an aggressive response by letter or phone call will not help the parents’ position because it will only give the school administration physical evidence that this need is medical rehabilita- tion. It is much more helpful for the orthopaedist to recognize that this is an educational decision, and offer the parents and school additional data as a way of helping the school and parents negotiate the disagreement. This ne- gotiation will be more profitable with this approach than getting involved with a litigation. Another major area where prescription need arises is obtaining adaptive equipment. All adaptive equipment purchased through medical reimburse- ment sources, such as private insurance or Medicaid, must include a medical prescription and usually a letter of medical need. Examples include orthotics, wheelchairs, and standers. If devices are purchased with educational dollars, no prescriptions are needed; these would typically include writing desks and computers used as augmentative writing devices. Many devices fall in be- tween, such as augmentative communication, classroom standers, and floor positioning devices. The specifics of who pays for what may be negotiated at the state level between agencies, or in other states, debated at length, often to the major advantage only of the legal profession.
In contrast buy roxithromycin 150mg low cost, an O-glycosidic link is a common way of attaching oligosac- charides to the serine or threonine hydroxyl groups in secreted proteins cheap roxithromycin 150 mg on line. The intra- cellular polysaccharide glycogen is attached to a protein through an O-glycosidic linkage to a tyrosine. Fatty Acylation or Prenylation Many membrane proteins contain a covalently attached lipid group that interacts hydrophobically with lipids in the membrane. Palmitoyl groups (C16) are often attached to plasma membrane proteins, and the myristoyl group (C14) is often Adenylyl cyclase is posttranslation- attached to proteins in the lipid membranes of intracellular vesicles (see Fig. The farnesyl (C15) or geranylgeranyl group (C20) are synthesized from an oligosaccharide chain attached the five-carbon isoprene unit (isopentenyl pyrophosphate, see Fig. These are attached in ether linkage to a specific of the isozymes contain serine residues on cysteine residue of certain membrane proteins, particularly proteins involved in the intracellular portion of the chain that regulation. Regulatory Modifications Phosphorylation, acetylation, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of specific amino acid residues in a polypeptide can alter bonding by that residue and change the activity of the protein (see Fig. Phosphorylation of an OH group on serine, threonine, or tyrosine by a protein kinase (an enzyme that trans- fers a phosphate group from ATP to a protein) introduces a large, bulky, nega- tively charged group that can alter the activity of a protein. Reversible acetylation occurring on lysine residues of histone proteins in the chromosome changes their 86 SECTION TWO / CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF BIOCHEMISTRY Carbohydrate addition O-glycosylation: OH of ser, thr, tyr, N-glycosylation: NH2 of asn O H O CH2 CH2 R O R O ser asn N N AC AC Lipid addition Palmitoylation: Internal SH of cys Myristoylation: NH of N-terminal gly O O O H3C (CH2)14 C S CH2 H3C (CH2)12 C N CH2 C H cys gly Prenylation: SH of cys O Cys C OCH3 SH O CH3 CH3 Cys C OCH3 CH3 C (CH2 CH2)2 H Regulation Phosphorylation: OH of ser, thr, tyr Acetylation: NH2 of lys, terminus O O CH O P O– CH C N CH CH CH CH 2 3 2 2 2 2 H O– ser arg ADP-ribosylation: N of arg, gln; S of cys + O O NH2 H Adenine CH2 P CH2 N C CH2 CH2 CH2 O – – O O O arg H HO OH HO OH Modified amino acids Oxidation: pro, lys Carboxylation: glu O N CH C CH2 pro H2 2 glu C CH –COO COO– H 4-Hydroxyproline γ–Carboxyglutamate residue Fig. Posttranslational modifications of amino acids in proteins. Some of the com- mon amino acid modifications and the sites of attachment are illustrated. Because these modifications are enzyme-catalyzed, only a specific amino acid in the primary sequence is altered. In N-glycosylation, the attached sugar is usually N-acetylglucosamine (N-Ac). CHAPTER 6 / AMINO ACIDS IN PROTEINS 87 interaction with the negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA.