By N. Topork. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. 2018.
Circulatory System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy buy trandate 100 mg, Sixth Edition Body Companies generic trandate 100 mg otc, 2001 Chapter 16 Circulatory System 587 stethoscope is not only important for detecting murmurs, but TABLE 16. Organ Location Function An electrocardiogram (ECG) provides a “picture” of the Lymph In clusters or chains Sites of lymphocyte production; electrical activity of the heart. The most important diagnostic use nodes along the paths of house T lymphocytes and of the resting ECG is identifying abnormal cardiac rhythms. Injury larger lymphatic vessels B lymphocytes that are to cardiac muscle, as in myocardial infarction, elevates or depresses responsible for immunity; the S-T segment while inverting and shortening the T wave. The accumulation of fluids can be easily abdominal cavity, phagocytes filter foreign detected using these techniques. Catheterization of the heart in beneath the diaphragm particles, cellular debris, and conjunction with a fluoroscopic analysis permits observation of and suspended from the worn erythrocytes from the stomach blood; houses lymphocytes the vessels, chambers, and valves of the heart. In addition, inter- Thymus Within the mediastinum, Important site of immunity in a nal blood pressures can be recorded and samples of blood taken. Arterial blood pressure can be measured using a sphygmo- manometer (see fig. Blood pressure is indicative of the general health of the cardiovascular system. Hypertension is sus- CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS tained high blood pressure and can result in mechanical damage to the cardiovascular system. Hypertension can be caused by re- It has been said that as the circulatory system goes, so goes the sistance in the vessels from physiological actions (vasoconstric- rest of the body. The circulatory system is the lifeline to the tion) or by various vascular diseases (arteriosclerosis). If the vital organs are deprived of the characteristics of the blood itself may cause hypertension. Some gerontologists believe that the first system of the body to show signs of aging is the circulatory Cardiac Arrhythmia system, and that this accelerates the aging process in the other Arrhythmias, or abnormal heart rhythms, can be detected and systems. Because a The circulatory system is extremely important clinically heartbeat occurs whenever a normal QRS complex (see because of the frequent irregularities and diseases that afflict it fig.
A typical example is the young person who has the most emphasis placed on complex carpal trauma cheap 100 mg trandate overnight delivery. Diffuse even demineralization commonly develops over longer Overview of Analysis periods of time and may be seen in older people with dif- fuse osteopenia of age and also from prolonged disuse best 100mg trandate. Forrester, looking at the muscu- Focal osteopenia, especially associated with cortical loskeletal system anywhere can be evaluated by the “A, loss, should raise the question of infection or a more B, C, D, ‘S” system. Utilizing these principles the margins of these joints and bones for cartilage space will help keep one from missing major observations. Starting with “S” for soft tissues will keep one from for- “D” refers to the distribution of abnormalities. Recognizing soft-tissue most vividly exemplified by the distribution of erosions, (“S”) abnormalities will point to an area of major abnor- as may be seen distally in psoriasis and more proximally mality and should trigger a second or third look at the in rheumatoid arthritis. The soft tissues dor- lelism, (2) overlapping articular surfaces, and (3) three sally over the carpal bones are normally concave. All three can be especially applied to the the soft tissues over the dorsum of the wrist are straight carpal bones. Parallelism refers to the fact that any anatomic line volar to the distal radius suggests deep swelling when structure that normally articulates with an adjacent anatom- it is convex outward, as normally it should be straight or ic structure should show parallelism between the articular concave. Soft-tissue swelling along the radial and ul- cortices of those adjacent bones. This is exactly how jigsaw nar styloids may be seen in synovitis or trauma. If there is a piece of a jigsaw puzzle out of along the radial or ulnar side of a finger joint can indi- place, then that piece loses its parallelism to adjacent cate collateral ligament injury. Anatomically, this would cause overlapping articu- ment exist along the radial side of the index finger and lar surfaces. Therefore, the concepts of parallelism and the ulnar side of the small finger.
For example buy cheap trandate 100mg online, it increases the ac- hormone has been added at high generic trandate 100 mg, nonphysiological con- tivity of protein synthesis initiation factors, promoting the centrations in experimental situations. While these effects start of translation and increasing the efficiency of protein may play a role in certain abnormal situations, the normal daily effects of glucagon occur primarily in the liver. Glucagon initiates its biological effects by interacting with one or more types of Endothelial cell cell membrane receptors. Glucagon receptors are coupled Cytoplasm Stored lipid to G proteins and promote increased intracellular cAMP, Capillary via the activation of adenylyl cyclase, or elevated cytosolic blood calcium as a result of phospholipid breakdown to form IP3. Glucagon is an impor- Glucose tant regulator of hepatic glycogen metabolism. It produces a net effect of glycogen breakdown by increasing intracel- lular cAMP levels, initiating a cascade of phosphorylation Acetyl-CoA α-Glycerol Lipoprotein phosphate events that ultimately results in the phosphorylation of phosphorylase b and its activation by conversion into Lipoprotein phosphorylase a. Similarly, glucagon promotes the net lipase Fatty acids breakdown of glycogen by promoting the inactivation of Fatty glycogen synthase (Fig. In addition to promot- ing hepatic glucose production by stimulating glycogenol- FIGURE 35. Insulin promotes the accumulation ysis, glucagon stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis (Fig. It does this principally by increasing the transcrip- shown by the heavy arrows and inhibiting the processes shown tion of mRNA coding for the enzyme phosphoenolpyru- by the light arrows. Similar stimulatory and inhibitory effects oc- vate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key rate-limiting enzyme in cur in liver cells. Glucagon also stimulates amino acid CHAPTER 35 The Endocrine Pancreas 629 Glucose Glycogen α-Glycerol phosphate Glycogen Glycogen synthase phosphorylase Triglycerides Glucose Glucose Glucose 6- phosphate Acetyl CoA Fatty Hormone- acids sensitive Ketogenesis lipase Ketones Glycerol LIVER CELL FIGURE 35.
In most instances discount 100mg trandate with visa, individuals with sickle cell disease do not need to alter Like hemophilia trandate 100mg without a prescription, sickle cell disease usu- activities, unless activities appear to pro- ally manifests itself in childhood, neces- voke a sickle cell crisis. Most activities, if sitating medical attention and, possibly, performed in moderation, can be tolerat- frequent hospitalizations, which can dis- ed. The unpredictability of sickle cell crises rupt social development and educational can alter social functioning for individu- progress. Psychological coping patterns are als with sickle cell disease, who may have relevant both to the experience of pain to cancel or alter plans at the last minute and to broader adjustment issues (Anie, if a crisis should occur. Coping with sick- as a precipitating factor in sickle cell cri- le cell disease may be especially difﬁcult sis must also be considered. Although during adolescence as individuals struggle stress is frequently associated with nega- 244 CHAPTER 8 CONDITIONS OF THE BLOOD AND IMMUNE SYSTEM tive events, stress can also be associated on the individual, the frequency, and the with positive events, such as a graduation seriousness of the crises when they occur. Human Immunodeﬁciency Virus (HIV) Vocational Issues in Sickle Cell Disease Infection Individuals with sickle cell disease must Not all viruses are harmful to humans, consider not only the physical demands but some viruses can cause disease. Because sickle childhood illness to more serious diseases, cell disease is a lifelong condition, most such as poliomyelitis and acquired individuals learn, over the years, which immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the organism that cannot grow or reproduce potential relationship of overexertion and outside living cells. In order to survive, a sickle cell crisis, most individuals with virus must enter a living cell and use the sickle cell disease are capable of perform- reproductive capacity of that cell for its ing moderate and, in some instances, even own replication. Normally, the body ﬁc organ or joint damage as a result of re- recognizes viruses as foreign and activates peated sickle cell crises have many of the the immune system to attack and destroy same limitations as those who have simi- the offending agent. In addi- are not destroyed, some remain inactive tion, individuals with sickle cell disease (dormant) for long periods without caus- should avoid extremes in temperature. The direct dam- damp environments can also precipitate age the virus does to the cell itself may a crisis.