By D. Rathgar. Westwood College of Technology.
Because there are limited numbers of these carri- A substance’s solubility in oil compared with its solu- ers in any cell membrane order 100mg aurogra amex, increasing the concentration of bility in water is its partition coefficient 100 mg aurogra fast delivery. Lipophilic sub- the solute initially uses the existing “spare” carriers to trans- stances that mix well with the lipids in the plasma mem- port the solute at a higher rate than by simple diffusion. As brane have high partition coefficients and, as a result, the concentration of the solute increases further and more high permeability coefficients; they tend to cross the solute molecules bind to carriers, the transport system plasma membrane easily. Hydrophilic substances, such as eventually reaches saturation, when all the carriers are in- ions and sugars, do not interact well with the lipid com- volved in translocating molecules of solute. At this point, ponent of the membrane, have low partition coefficients additional increases in solute concentration do not increase and low permeability coefficients, and diffuse across the the rate of solute transport (see Fig. The types of carrier-mediated transport mechanisms For solutes that diffuse across the lipid part of the plasma considered here can transport a solute along its concentra- membrane, the relationship between the rate of movement tion gradient only, as in simple diffusion. Net movement Simple diffusion Carrier-mediated transport 10 10 Vmax 5 5 1 3 1 2 3 Solute concentration (mmol/L) Solute concentration (mmol/L) outside cell outside cell FIGURE 2. Once all are occupied by solute, further increases in extracellular concentration have no ef- fect on the rate of transport. B, Bound solute readily dissociates from the carrier because of plasma membrane. In this example, solute transport into the cell the low intracellular concentration of solute. The release of solute is driven by the high solute concentration outside compared to may allow the carrier to revert to its original conformation (A) to inside. A, Binding of extracellular solute to the carrier, a mem- begin the cycle again. The throcyte GLUT 1 has an affinity for D-glucose that is about transport systems function until the solute concentrations 2,000-fold greater than the affinity for L-glucose. However, equilibrium is attained much tegral membrane protein that contains 12 membrane-span- faster than with simple diffusion. Equilibrating carrier-mediated transport systems have Equilibrating carrier-mediated transport, like simple several characteristics: diffusion, does not have directional preferences. It func- • They allow the transport of polar (hydrophilic) mole- tions equally well in bringing its specific solutes into or cules at rates much higher than expected from the parti- out of the cell, depending on the concentration gradient.
The synovial sheath can be appreciated only when The hallmark of tenosynovitis in tendons of the sec- the examination is performed with high-resolution ond group is the presence of an effusion in the tendon’s equipment and presents as a thin hypoechoic rim sur- sheath discount aurogra 100mg visa. The most common causes of tenosynovitis are rounding the tendons order aurogra 100mg free shipping, related to the synovial fluid con- trauma, foreign bodies, infection and arthritis. Increased echogenicity of the effusion and- of the foreign body within the synovial space suggests Tendinosis and Ruptures an infective tenosynovitis, but it must be stressed that a definite diagnosis cannot be made only on the basis of Tendinosis is a degenerative disease that result mainly US findings but relies on fluid aspiration, which can be from chronic local microtraumas. In tenosyn- shows an enlarged tendon with internal irregularities of ovitis secondary to systemic arthritis, the synovial mem- the normal internal structure, focal hypoechoic areas, brane of the tendon sheath appears hypertrophied and and hyperechoic regions with posterior shadowing. In the most severe cases, the hypoechoic areas correlate with fibromyxoid degenera- synovial pannus can eventually completely fill the syn- tion while hyperechoic images correlate with calcifica- ovial space. In hypertrophic tenosynovitis, color with changes related to tendinosis, the US distinction be- Doppler can help in distinguishing the hypoechoic pan- tween tendon degeneration and small tears is often not nus from the effusion based on the presence or absence feasible. Musculoskeletal Sonography 159 Tendon Dislocation mas are mainly observed in nerves entrapments syn- dromes, which typically affect nerves that course in un- Dislocation can occur only in tendons of the second extensible osteofibrous tunnels. The most fre- ing method to confirm clinical suspicion of entrapment quent dislocations affect the long head of the biceps ten- neuropathy and to plan appropriate treatment, since it can don at the shoulder and the peroneal tendons at depict nerve changes and the cause of the compression. Due to its tomographic capability, US is well The main nerve findings in chronic entrapments are: lo- suited to detect tendon displacement. Transverse images calized flattening at the level of compression and proxi- optimally show the relation of the tendons with the oste- mal bulbous enlargement, hypoechogenicity with loss of ofibrous tunnels that usually house them. Secondary fascicular echo texture, enhanced flow signals on color changes, such as tendon sheath effusion due to inflam- Doppler. Dynamic examina- Different causes of compression can be demonstrated tion performed during different movements of the arm or by US. In carpal tunnel syndrome, tenosynovitis of the foot may detect intermittent subluxation.
Erythropoietin Increases the Production Rarely discount aurogra 100mg mastercard, renal artery stenosis causes hypertension that of Erythrocytes can be attributed solely to elevated renin and angiotensin II The final step in blood volume regulation is production of levels discount 100mg aurogra with mastercard. Erythropoietin is a hormone released by the important (but not unique) role in maintaining elevated kidneys that causes bone marrow to increase production of pressure in more than 60% of patients with essential hy- red blood cells, raising the total mass of circulating red pertension. The stimuli for erythropoietin release include hy- and angiotensin II are increased and contribute to elevated poxia and reduced hematocrit. AVP and aldosterone enhances salt and water retention and results in an elevated plasma volume. The increased plasma Arginine Vasopressin Contributes volume (with a constant volume of red blood cells) results in a lower hematocrit. The decrease in hematocrit stimu- to the Regulation of Blood Volume lates erythropoietin release, which stimulates red blood cell Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released by the posterior pi- synthesis and, therefore, balances the increase in plasma tuitary gland controlled by the hypothalamus. In addition, circulating an- COMPARISON OF SHORT-TERM AND giotensin II stimulates AVP release. Although AVP is a LONG-TERM BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL vasoconstrictor, it is not ordinarily present in plasma in Different mechanisms are responsible for the short-term high enough concentrations to exert an effect on blood and long-term control of blood pressure. AVP exerts its major effect on the cardiovascular system by Long-term control depends on salt and water excretion causing the retention of water by the kidneys (see Chapter by the kidneys. Excretion of salt and water by the kidneys 24)—an important part of the neural and humoral mecha- is regulated by some neural and hormonal mechanisms, nisms that regulate blood volume. Increased arterial pressure results in increased excretion of salt and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Helps Regulate water—a phenomenon known as pressure diuresis (Fig. Because of pressure diuresis, as long as mean arterial Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a 28-amino acid pressure is elevated, salt and water excretion will exceed the polypeptide synthesized and stored in the atrial muscle normal rate; this will tend to lower extracellular fluid vol- 298 PART IV BLOOD AND CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY Intervention CARDIOVASCULAR CONTROL DURING STANDING Arterial pressure Salt and An integrated view of the cardiovascular system requires an increase water output understanding of the relationships among cardiac output, decrease venous return, and central blood volume and how these re- lationships are influenced by interactions among various neural, hormonal, and other control mechanisms. Consid- Cardiac output Plasma volume eration of the responses to standing erect provides an op- portunity to explore these elements in detail.
Dissections of in size as a result of the accretion of cells and tissues similar to cadavers are usually conducted on a regional basis buy aurogra 100mg mastercard. Growth is an integral part of jury usually affects a region of the body discount aurogra 100mg online, whereas a disease that af- development that continues until adulthood. In the several hormones (chemicals produced by endocrine glands), in- chapters that follow, you will become acquainted, system by sys- cluding insulin, growth hormone, and (during adolescence) the tem, with the functional anatomy of the entire body. It is through the growth process that each of the overview of the structure and function of each of the body sys- body systems eventually matures (fig. Construct a diagram to illustrate the levels of structural or- phasizes the purposes of various organs within a system. Which of these lev- ample, the functional role of the digestive system can be best els are microscopic? Which serve a gional approach has merit in graduate professional schools (med- transportive role? Body Organization and © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Organization, and the Anatomical Nomenclature Companies, 2001 Human Organism 30 Unit 2 Terminology, Organization, and the Human Organism testosterone and other androgens FIGURE 2. Controlled by hormones, puberty is the period of body growth when sexual characteristics are expressed and the sexual organs become functional. The malleus and anvil resemble miniatures of a blacksmith’s implements, and tympa- Objective 6 Explain how anatomical terms are derived. You will encounter many new terms throughout your Objective 7 Describe what is meant by prefixes and suffixes. You can learn these terms more easily if you know the meaning of their prefixes and suffixes. Analyzing anatomical termi- glossary of prefixes and suffixes (on the inside front cover) as nology can be a rewarding experience in that one learns some- an aid in learning new terms.